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Archive for July, 2015

A Truly Magnificent Human Achievement With Perhaps More to Come

Thursday, July 30th, 2015

While the world, this Earth, was undergoing all manner of chaos, degeneration, famine, epidemics and other delights, a really sensational and providential event occurred: Pluto, the planet (I call it) or the Dwarf planet (as others call it) welcomed, after a 3 billion mile nine year journey, a NASA probe that spied upon its surface and revealed such unexpected findings. This frozen world, at the very edge of our solar system, surrounded by the Kuiper belt filled with ancient debris, some almost as large as Pluto itself, had been for many years the target of speculation. Now the New Horizon Probe has passed by Pluto and is on the way out of our solar system, on a journey far into black space. Will some sentient being, 1000 millennia from now, find it and wonder what and where it came from?

What did the probe find? Its first close up images of Pluto revealed an eerie region where frozen water rose in mountains up to 11,000 feet high. These images of Pluto and its largest moon, Charon, were the first close-ups of these worlds and were amazingly clear, revealing features as small as a mile across. Mission scientists at the Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory in Maryland, were amazed by what the images revealed. Alan Stern, the project’s principal investigator said, “It is going to send a lot of geophysicists back to the drawing board.” It will likely be days before researchers obtain enough data from the probe to be able to create a full composite image of the surface of both Pluto and Charon. Nevertheless, the scientists everywhere will have to rethink theories about how Pluto and its moons might have been formed. The towering mountains that were revealed amazed the NASA researchers. It is likely that methane ice and nitrogen ice cover most of Pluto’s surface, but these materials are not strong enough to support the weight of such huge mountains now thought to be water ice. And the images of Charon, Pluto’s largest moon, showed an icy crust fractured by cliffs and troughs stretching about 600 miles, with one Canyon appearing to be at least 4 to 6 miles deep. But, like Pluto, Sharon’s surface appeared free of impact craters indicating that the surface of both worlds is relatively young.

Well, what does this all mean? What might this portend? I see that someday, far into the future, perhaps 300 to 1000 years from now, a ship will sail past Pluto (now an important research and transportation station). This ship, propelled by some kind of hydrogen fuel, will cradle hundreds of humans in stasis, on a long journey out of our solar system, into the void, on the way to a planet hundreds of light-years away, where a new beginning for humanity will wait.

Felons Go Home

Wednesday, July 15th, 2015

And if the Steinli event raises some very serious questions about our President, what about the fact that just this week he has commuted the sentences of 46 felony cocaine dealers and sent each of them a personal letter (I don’t know what was in these letters –––  and apology, perhaps, that each of them had been incarcerated for being cocaine dealers but that after all they had not killed anyone so are not guilty of homicide and therefore did not deserve to be in jail ––– except perhaps for the deaths of those whom they had sold to).

Well, I understand. A letter to a felon is appropriate, but not to a family grieving for their daughter shot by an illegal alien.

Barack Hussein Obama: Who is He? Really?

Wednesday, July 15th, 2015

Last week it came to national (and perhaps international ) attention that a beautiful 32-year-old woman, Kathie Steinli was walking with her father in San Francisco, California. She was gunned down by an illegal Mexican immigrant who had been deported from the United States five times and had been tagged with 6 felony charges. He had found his way to San Francisco because it was a sanctuary city –– and despite requests by the federal authorities to jail him, the sheriff of San Francisco refused, because San Francisco is a sanctuary city, and thus let him go, and the felon went on to shoot Ms. Steinli with an illegally obtained gun. I won’t go into the question of how bad sanctuary cities are or that our borders no longer exist, allowing anyone to enter, and how this is destroying the country, and how the Obama administration seems to be relishing this. No, it’s no use doing that.

But, despite the fact that President Obama speaks to or meets with the families, or goes or sends surrogates to the funerals, of young black males who are shot by police or by psychotic racists, he has not and probably will not call or meet with Kathie Steinli’s family or even mention the killing. This raises serious questions about him. I wonder what can explain this callousness? What do you think?

Tuberculosis: We Thought We Had It Licked

Wednesday, July 15th, 2015

Supercharged Tuberculosis, Made in India
Scientific American
By Jason Overdorf | July 6, 2015
Obama has said that climate change is the greatest threat to the United States.( I guess he forgot about Russia, Iran, China, ISIS, and about a potential pandemic that poses an enormous threat as described below).

A patient with extensively drug-resistant TB flew from Mumbai to Chicago, and the deadly disease could become an infamous export due to problems in India’s public health system

MUMBAI, India—On a drizzly Monday afternoon here a few weeks ago, patients crowded around a door in a hallway in P. D. Hinduja Hospital—a private, nonprofit facility that caters to around 350,000 people per year. There is a loud, steady roar of voices, and patients and nurses have to shoulder past one another to get through the door, which leads to the office of lung specialist Zarir Udwadia. The walls are clean and white, and the air carries the tangy smell of disinfectant.

Against one of those white walls a grizzled old man with a breathing tube in his nose lies moaning on a stretcher. Nearby, clutching a sheaf of prescriptions, the father of a sick college student tries to catch the attention of one of Udwadia’s assisting physicians. Several families have traveled thousands of kilometers to be here. Many of these patients, like 19-year-old Nisha, an engineering student from the central state of Madhya Pradesh, have tuberculosis (TB). Nisha, who asked that her real name be withheld, has been treated for lung problems for more than a year, only to learn that inaccurate diagnoses and prescription errors have supercharged the disease rather than curing it. “My doctors kept on changing the drugs,” says Nisha. Dressed in jeans and a floral-print blouse and black Buddy Holly–style horn-rimmed glasses, she speaks in a bright, optimistic voice, although her battle with TB has left her anorexic-thin.

By exposing Nisha’s TB to various drugs without wiping it out, her doctors just made it stronger, a problem that Udwadia—the doctor who first identified extreme drug resistance in the germ—and other health experts say is becoming increasingly widespread in India. Too few diagnostic laboratories, too many poorly-trained health practitioners and thousands of infected people living in crowded, unsanitary conditions has made India home to the world’s largest epidemic of drug-resistant TB. More than two million Indians every year get the highly contagious disease, and a patient dies every two minutes. Around 62,000 of these people harbor TB that is immune to at least four types of drugs, according to the World Health Organization, and as many as 15,000 may have an even more dangerous type called “extensively drug-resistant” TB that fights off almost every antibiotic in the medical arsenal.

Now, difficult-to-kill TB is no longer just India’s nightmare. In June U.S. health authorities confirmed that an Indian patient carried this extreme form of the infection, called XDR-TB, across the ocean to Chicago. The patient drove from there to visit relatives as far away as Tennessee and Missouri. Health officials in several states are tracking down everyone with whom the patient—who is now quarantined and being treated at the National Institutes of Health in Maryland—had prolonged contact. The disease can be cured in only 30 percent of patients and sometimes requires surgery to remove infected parts of lungs. Although TB’s slow rate of infection makes explosive epidemics unlikely, the Chicago episode shows how easy it might be for the illness to become a worldwide export.

Yet until recently Indian public health officials remained reluctant to admit there’s a problem, says Nerges Mistry, director of the Mumbai-based Foundation for Medical Research. “They were always trying to deny it [existed],” she says. (Neither the head of India’s Revised National Tuberculosis Control Program (RNTCP) nor Mumbai’s main tuberculosis control official—both of whom are new to their posts—responded to interview requests from Scientific American.)

Resisting a cure
Tuberculosis typically attacks the lungs, but can also develop in bones, the stomach or even the genitals. Unlike the Ebola virus, which can only be transmitted by direct contact with the bodily fluids of an infected person, TB can be transmitted via coughing, in airborne droplets from an infected person, though experts say it’s harder to catch than viruses like influenza or chicken pox. (However, in 2013 Scientific American reported that some TB strains may be getting more virulent.) The typical symptoms of a TB lung infection include fever, night sweats and a chronic, hacking cough.

For an ordinary infection, the WHO-mandated treatment includes lengthy treatment with a cocktail of antibiotics: a two-month course of rifampicin, isoniazid, pyrazinamide and ethambutol followed by a four-month regimen of isoniazid and rifampicin alone. If the patient fails to complete the treatment or the TB bacilli in her system is already immune to one of those antibiotics, however, then some of the germs will survive, adapt and grow stronger. Some the hardier organisms can survive to pass on drug-resistant traits to their progeny, and those traits then spread to a wider group of descendants. That means it’s crucial to kill off the entire population with the first course of treatment and hunt down and kill off any resistors.

The WHO defines drug-resistant TB as a strain of bacteria immune to one of the first-line drugs used to treat the disease. Multidrug resistant TB, or MDR-TB, does not respond to the two most powerful drugs, isoniazid and rifampicin. Finally, XDR-TB is resistant to those two drugs, plus any fluoroquinolone and at least one of the three injectable second-line drugs, capreomycin, kanamycin and amikacin.

In Nisha’s case her doctors never tested her for drug resistance, so she underwent treatment for more than a year with compounds doomed to failure. As a result, she suffered side effects from the antibiotics—which included hearing loss and joint pain so severe she couldn’t get out of bed—without being cured. Worse, her infection grew stronger.

What concerns TB specialists like Udwadia is that India has been creating thousands of Nishas this way. And although it has begun to respond to the problem, the reaction is too small and too slow. A slim, fastidious man with a sharp nose and a thick shock of black hair, Udwadia doesn’t look like an alarmist. He wears a conformist’s pinstriped dress shirt and red tie as he puts Nisha through a brief examination. But Mistry and other health experts from nongovernmental organizations say his original identification of alarmingly resistant disease strains, and his continued pressure on the medical community to do something about it, are among the biggest reasons that India’s culture of denial is beginning to show some cracks.

The country’s resistance problems have arisen, paradoxically, because India has made great strides against the nonresistant form of the disease. Beginning in the 1990s India adopted a WHO-developed program called “Directly Observed Treatment, Short Course,” or DOTS. It is designed to ensure poorly educated patients in the developing world properly complete the six-month-long, first-line TB treatment. Through a huge network of volunteer “DOT providers” the RNTCP has managed to dispense the free treatment to corners of the country where the nearest hospital lies hundreds of kilometers away. It boosted the detection rate for new cases above 70 percent in 2010 and it is targeting 90 percent this year. And it has achieved a treatment success rate of 88 percent for the patients it identifies, according to RNTCP documents.

In other ways, however, India’s performance has been less than stellar. Although public health spending has risen steadily since 2000 it is still less than $5 per person, a perilously low level. As a result, the country has fewer than one doctor per 1,000 people and an even more dramatic shortage of laboratories that can test for TB resistance. DOTS cannot substitute for testing infrastructure. As recently as 2008, less than one percent of high-risk patients were tested to see if they were susceptible to various anti-TB drugs. And private sector doctors screened for TB with blood tests that were notorious for false positives.* These errors simply meant that frontline antibiotics were overused, and overuse is the classic recipe for developing resistance.
Number of multidrug-resistant TB cases estimated among known TB patients, 2013. Source: WHO

In December 2011 Udwadia decided that he had seen enough. The laboratory at Hinduja—one of the few Indian labs equipped to perform drug-susceptibility testing—identified a fourth patient infected with TB that was impervious to all 12 of the first-line, second-line and last-resort drugs that the hospital had at its disposal. He dashed off a two-page note to the medical journal Clinical Infectious Diseases, declaring an outbreak of what he called “totally drug-resistant TB.”

Italian scientists had made the same claim in 2006, and the bacteria’s capacity to develop drug-resistant strains was already well known. In a country that thought it was getting its TB problems under control, however, Udwadia’s article was as important as pulling the fire alarm when you see the building in flames.
see also:

The doctor, like the antibiotics he was trying to use, encountered resistance. WHO questioned the term “totally drug-resistant,” saying absolute imperviousness had not been demonstrated. The agency also hinted that Udwadia’s laboratory results might be flawed. India’s health ministry added doubts about the lab, noting that Hinduja Hospital had not received accreditation from the government to conduct drug-sensitivity tests for second-line drugs.

The dispute caught the attention of the press and the public. The Times of India and other newspapers launched lengthy discussions on the extent of drug resistance. Bollywood star Amir Khan devoted an hour-long episode of his wildly popular, Oprah-style talk show to Udwadia and TB. And other Indian medical experts came out to support him, accusing the health ministry of attacking the messenger. Citations of his Clinical Infectious Diseases article by other researchers skyrocketed.

The public outcry forced the government into action. It dramatically boosted the budget for the national tuberculosis control program and increased hospital and outreach staff fourfold. Authorities stopped using older, error-prone blood tests, and began a transition to molecular testing with new GeneXpert machines that identify genetic markers of resistant strains. Though still in short supply, the machines drastically reduced false positives and allowed doctors detect resistance to first-line drugs within two hours, rather than weeks. Where they’ve been implemented, the machines produce a fivefold increase in detection of rifampicin resistance, for instance, according to the largest Indian study to date. Cases that the machine flags as drug-resistant are referred to the district TB officer, and a committee of specialists decides on a treatment regime. “I don’t think the push would have been sustainable if not for Zarir [Udwadia]’s reports in the newspapers,” Mistry says. “It forced people to come to terms with what was really happening in the city.”

An expanding problem
But machines alone will not solve the problem. Mumbai now boasts 18 GeneXpert machines. There are only 120 nationwide, though—not enough to test all patients suspected to have MDR-TB, as recommended by WHO. And even in Mumbai, government hospitals only conduct GeneXpert tests on patients that have failed to respond to the first two months of DOTS treatment, due to the high cost of the cartridges the machine uses.

Udwadia and other physicians voice a bigger concern. The GeneXpert test can only confirm resistance to rifampicin, they note. Because India doesn’t have enough laboratories to conduct further drug-susceptibility tests, any patient flagged by the machines is immediately put on the national TB program recommended regimen for MDR-TB. This one-size-fits-all treatment does have an advantage; it makes it “easier for lower category people to supervise patients and easier for the patient to take the medicines regularly,” says Rajeshree Jadhav, chief medical officer at Mumbai’s government-run Pandit Madan Mohan Malviya Hospital.

Yet the off-the-shelf regimen does not account for further, stronger drug resistance that has already spread in Mumbai. According to a yet unpublished study conducted by Udwadia and his colleagues at Hinduja, it would now only cure a third of the drug-resistant patients in the city. The rest would receive three or more useless drugs and thus become even more resistant. “In Mumbai it is absolutely critical to follow up GeneXpert with full drug-susceptibility testing,” says Madhukar Pai, an epidemiologist at McGill University in Montreal and a leading TB researcher. “Otherwise, patients might get inadequate treatment.

Nor does the country have a good sense of how big the resistance problem really is. Because of the small number of diagnostic laboratories there’s no way of knowing how the proportion of XDR-TB patients here compares with central Asian and eastern European countries like Lithuania—where nearly a quarter of MDR-TB patients actually have XDR-TB. But the sheer numbers of new TB infections every year, together with the tardy government response, suggest the problem may soon be larger here. A nationwide drug-resistance survey should provide more data in 2016, according to Pai. But the evidence that is available suggests XDR-TB will be “a sizeable fraction of all MDR” in cities like Mumbai—although it will remain low in rural areas.

If there are indeed many people with resistant germs, it heightens the chances of those pathogens leaving the country for the rest of the world. Nearly a million Indians traveled to the U.S. in 2014, compared with less than three million from all of central Asia. More and more middle-class Indians are being diagnosed with TB, and although the patient who carried XDR-TB to the U.S. was immediately placed in isolation, India has no provisions for quarantines or travel restrictions.

The risk of an epidemic outbreak from a single traveler is low, since TB is transmitted from person to person through prolonged, close contact. Moreover, the US has both the resources and tuberculosis control programs to react swiftly, according to Neil Schluger, chief of pulmonary medicine at Columbia University Medical Center and a specialist in TB. However, the worldwide migration of drug resistant strains does worry him a good deal. “It is like Ebola in slow motion. Potentially it is a huge public health problem,” says Schluger, but it is likely to creep along rather than explode.

A difficult future
In India, the troubling situation is not without hope Udwadia has found that some XDR-TB strains can be treated with a cocktail of drugs including the broad-spectrum antibiotic meropenem–clavulanate and the antileprosy medications linezolid and clofazamine. Johnson & Johnson’s bedaquiline, the first novel TB treatment to be released in some 40 years, can also be effective. But the chances of survival using bedaquiline are less than 50–50, depending on the severity of drug-resistance and how early treatment begins. The treatment is grueling because the drug itself is highly toxic. It has not yet been approved for use in India, so Udwadia has to lodge individual requests to treat each patient on what is called “compassionate basis.”

Whereas regular DOTS patients undergo a short course of chemotherapy, MDR- and XDR-TB patients may be subjected to it for as long as two years. Radical lung surgery is sometimes also required. And other second-line medications frequently cause nausea, joint pain, hearing failure and depression so severe that suicide is not uncommon.

In Udwadia’s office a stocky, lower-middle-class woman who asked to be called Vanita (not her real name) says she was diagnosed with XDR-TB some four years after she was first treated with DOTS. For months she has been striving to eat better so that she is strong enough to withstand bedaquiline. She is too shy to express her relief when one of Udwadia’s assistants tells her that she’s finally met the health criteria. But her eyes shine with grateful tears above the green cloth mask covering her mouth and nose. And her doctor, who pushed the concept of total resistance, insists that particular adjective does not determine fate. “‘Total’ never means ‘totally doomed,’” Udwadia says.

Climate Change: The End of Life on Earth?

Wednesday, July 15th, 2015

Several weeks ago, Obama noted that the greatest threat that the USA faces is CLIMATE CHANGE! And it is often said that 97% of scientists believe that human activity is the primary cause of climate change and that climate change will soon be so advanced and devastating that there will be no chance for reversal and that continued human life on the planet might be severely threatened. So, I thought I’d follow up on this issue and I found out that these projections of Armageddon are not nearly as certain as has been projected by the left wing press and our left wing politicians.

Scientists Questioning the Accuracy of IPCC Climate Projections

I.These scientists have said that it is not possible to project global climate accurately enough to justify the ranges projected for temperature and sea-level rise over the next century. They may not conclude specifically that the current IPCC projections are either too high or too low, but that the projections are likely to be inaccurate due to inadequacies of current global climate modeling.

David Bellamy, botanist.
Judith Curry, Professor and former chair of the School of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences at the Georgia Institute of Technology.
Freeman Dyson, professor emeritus of the School of Natural Sciences, Institute for Advanced Study; Fellow of the Royal Society
Steven E. Koonin, theoretical physicist and director of the Center for Urban Science and Progress at New York University
Richard Lindzen, Alfred P. Sloan emeritus professor of atmospheric science at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and member of the National Academy of Sciences
Craig Loehle, ecologist and chief scientist at the National Council for Air and Stream Improvement.
Nils-Axel Mörner, retired head of the Paleogeophysics and Geodynamics Department at Stockholm University, former chairman of the INQUA Commission on Sea Level Changes and Coastal Evolution
Garth Paltridge, retired chief research scientist, CSIRO Division of Atmospheric Research and retired director of the Institute of the Antarctic Cooperative Research Centre, visiting fellow Australian National University
Denis Rancourt, former professor of physics at University of Ottawa, research scientist in condensed matter physics, and in environmental and soil science
Peter Stilbs, professor of physical chemistry at Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm
Philip Stott, professor emeritus of biogeography at the University of London
Hendrik Tennekes, retired director of research, Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute Anastasios Tsonis, distinguished professor at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee
Fritz Vahrenholt, German politician and energy executive with a doctorate in chemistry

II Scientists arguing that global warming is primarily caused by natural processes –– the ability with which a global climate model is able to reconstruct the historical temperature record, and the degree to which those temperature changes can be decomposed into various forcing factors, and these five forcing factors are: greenhouse gases, man-made sulfate emissions, solar variability, ozone changes, and volcanic emissions.These scientists have said that the observed warming is more likely to be attributable to natural causes than to human activities. Their views on climate change are usually described in more detail in their biographical articles.

Khabibullo Abdusamatov, astrophysicist at Pulkovo Observatory of the Russian Academy of Sciences
Sallie Baliunas, astrophysicist, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics
Timothy Ball, professor emeritus of geography at the University of Winnipeg
Robert M. Carter, former head of the school of earth sciences at James Cook University
Ian Clark, hydrogeologist, professor, Department of Earth Sciences, University of Ottawa
Chris de Freitas, associate professor, School of Geography, Geology and Environmental Science, University of Auckland
David Douglass, solid-state physicist, professor, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester
Don Easterbrook, emeritus professor of geology, Western Washington University
William M. Gray, professor emeritus and head of the Tropical Meteorology Project, Department of Atmospheric Science, Colorado State University
William Happer, physicist specializing in optics and spectroscopy, Princeton University[74][75]
Ole Humlum, professor of geology at the University of Oslo
Wibjörn Karlén, professor emeritus of geography and geology at the University of Stockholm.
William Kininmonth, meteorologist, former Australian delegate to World Meteorological Organization Commission for Climatology
David Legates, associate professor of geography and director of the Center for Climatic Research, University of Delaware
Anthony Lupo, professor of atmospheric science at the University of Missouri
Tad Murty, oceanographer; adjunct professor, Departments of Civil Engineering and Earth Sciences, University of Ottawa]
Tim Patterson, paleoclimatologist and professor of geology at Carleton University in Canada.
Ian Plimer, professor emeritus of mining geology, the University of Adelaide.
Arthur B. Robinson, American politician, biochemist and former faculty member at the University of California, San Diego
Murry Salby, atmospheric scientist, former professor at Macquarie University
Nicola Scafetta, research scientist in the physics department at Duke University
Tom Segalstad, geologist; associate professor at University of Oslo
Nir Shaviv, professor of physics focusing on astrophysics and climate science at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem[
Fred Singer, professor emeritus of environmental sciences at the University of Virginia
Willie Soon, astrophysicist, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics[108][109]
Roy Spencer, meteorologist; principal research scientist, University of Alabama in Huntsville
Henrik Svensmark, physicist, Danish National Space Center
George H. Taylor, retired director of the Oregon Climate Service at Oregon State University
Jan Veizer, environmental geochemist, professor emeritus from University of Ottawa

III.Scientists arguing that the cause of global warming is unknown.These scientists have said that no principal cause can be ascribed to the observed rising temperatures, whether man-made or natural.

Syun-Ichi Akasofu, retired professor of geophysics and founding director of the International Arctic Research Center of the University of Alaska Fairbanks.
Claude Allègre, French politician; geochemist, emeritus professor at Institute of Geophysics (Paris)
Robert Balling, a professor of geography at Arizona State University.
Pål Brekke, solar astrophycisist, senior advisor Norwegian Space Centre.
John Christy, professor of atmospheric science and director of the Earth System Science Center at the University of Alabama in Huntsville, contributor to several IPCC reports. Petr Chylek, space and remote sensing sciences researcher, Los Alamos National Laboratory.
David Deming, geology professor at the University of Oklahoma.
Ivar Giaever, professor emeritus of physics at the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute and a Nobel laureate.
Vincent R. Gray, New Zealand physical chemist with expertise in coal ashes
Keith E. Idso, botanist, former adjunct professor of biology at Maricopa County Community College District and the vice president of the Center for the Study of Carbon Dioxide and Global Change
Antonino Zichichi, emeritus professor of nuclear physics at the University of Bologna and president of the World Federation of Scientists.

IV.Scientists arguing that global warming will have few negative consequences.These scientists have said that projected rising temperatures will be of little impact or a net positive for society or the environment.

Craig D. Idso, faculty researcher, Office of Climatology, Arizona State University and founder of the Center for the Study of Carbon Dioxide and Global Change
Sherwood B. Idso, former research physicist, USDA Water Conservation Laboratory, and adjunct professor, Arizona State University
Patrick Michaels, senior fellow at the Cato Institute and retired research professor of environmental science at the University of Virginia

V.Dead scientists. This section includes deceased scientists who would otherwise be listed in the prior sections.

August H. “Augie” Auer Jr. (1940–2007), retired New Zealand MetService Meteorologist and past professor of atmospheric science at the University of Wyoming
Reid Bryson (1920–2008), Emeritus Professor of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, University of Wisconsin-Madison, said in a 2007 magazine interview that he believed global warming was primarily caused by natural processes:
Robert Jastrow (1925–2008) was an American astronomer, physicist and cosmologist. He was a leading NASA scientist. Together with Fred Seitz and William Nierenberg he established the George C. Marshall Institute to counter the scientists who were arguing against Reagan’s Starwars Initiative, arguing for equal time in the media. This institute later took the view that tobacco was having no effect, that acid rain was not caused by human emissions, that ozone was not depleted by CFCs, that pesticides were not environmentally harmful and it was also critical of the consensus view of anthropogenic global warming] Jastrow acknowledged the Earth was experiencing a warming trend, but claimed that the cause was likely to be natural variation.
Marcel Leroux (1938–2008) former Professor of Climatology, Université Jean Moulin
Frederick Seitz (1911–2008), solid-state physicist and former president of the National Academy of Sciences and co-founder of the George C. Marshall Institute in 1984.

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